- How to prune raspberries.
- Is now really the right time to plant garlic?
- Some guidelines for storing summer produce.
- Where to find finely ground rock dust.
- Get grass clippings from your neighbours.
- Plant your seeds in egg shells.
- Eat your pumpkin leaves!.
- Rockmelons: smell their bottoms or watch them change colour?
- Protecting seedlings from both slaters and snails.
- Growing strawberries in a small space.
- Keeping your worms cool.
- Using food leftovers/scraps and reducing food waste.
How to prune raspberries (from Guy Palmer, April 26 2017)
There are two types of raspberry:
- ‘Summer bearing’, which fruit once a year, on 2nd year canes in summer.
- ‘Everbearing’, which fruit twice a year, on 2nd year canes in summer, and on 1st year canes in autumn.
Now is a good time to be pruning your raspberries because, whichever type you have, it will have finished fruiting for the year. However, the two types should be pruned differently. If you haven’t yet worked out which type you have, prune them as though they are ‘summer bearers’.
For the ‘summer bearers’: cut all the canes that have fruited down to the ground (because they won’t fruit again). If you don’t know which canes have fruited, they are the longer and thicker ones, and they often have multiple lateral branches. Thin the others to 5-7 per plant, shorten them as desired, and tie the ends to your trellis.
For the ‘everbearers’: you can prune them like the ‘summer bearers’, in which case you will get two crops (in summer and autumn), neither of which will be prolific. Alternatively, you can sacrifice next summer’s crop for a better autumn crop by simply cutting all the canes down to the ground. Clearly, the second approach would not be good if your raspberries are, in fact, ‘summer bearers’ as it will result in no fruit next year! But it is (arguably) the best approach if you want raspberries in the autumn, and it is also the quickest.
I rather like the Wikihow raspberry pruning page.
To which Heather responded (in May 2017):
An alternative name for ‘everbearing raspberries’ is ‘autumn bearing raspberries’ (although, strictly speaking, ‘summer and autumn bearing raspberries’ would be more accurate).
My ‘autumn bearing raspberries’ haven’t yet finished flowering and fruiting and I am seeing big sweet berries every day at the moment. Last year, I picked my final fruit for the season on 30th July! (although they were not as sweet as the earlier ones). So it’s too early to cut these productive canes back. What I have done is tip prune them where the fruiting top segments of the canes have died but where more fruit is developing lower down these same canes. I have also removed other canes which were dead all the way down. And given the remaining canes some light fertiliser.
Is now really the right time to plant garlic? (from Guy Palmer, April 12 2017)
In this month’s excellent Sustainable Macleod’s newsletter (click here to read the newsletter or click here to sign up for future newsletters), Robin Gale-Baker ruminated about whether the recent warm weather means that we should be deferring our garlic planting. She and I have subsequently debated the subject in more detail. It is a tricky issue, with no clear answer. The salient facts are:
- In Melbourne, garlic is usually planted in April.
- Robin thinks that the soil is currently too warm for garlic planting.
- According to Gardenate, it is ok to leave the planting until May (or even June).
- Like onions, garlic plants are sensitive to the length of the day, with the start of bulb formation (and the end of leaf growth) being triggered by a day length exceeding X hours. (This website says that X=13 and this website says that this will happen on 13th October.)
If you plant too early (i.e. when it is too warm), a risk is apparently that the resulting bulbs don’t divide into separate cloves. If you plant too late, a risk is apparently smaller bulbs (because, per day length, the garlic starts trying to form bulbs when it is too young). One potential way around this paradox is to keep the garlic in the fridge for 30-40 days before planting. I am going to try all the possible options and will report back in due course.
Incidently, plants whose behaviour depends on day length are called ‘photoperiodic’. One way that they ‘know’ the length of the day (or, more accurately, the length of the night) is because they produce substances (X) in the dark which degenerate to other substances in the light so the night length is proportional to the maximum daily concentration of X. For many plants, day length is at least as important as temperature and this is one reason why so many plants can be grown over so much of the world. This subject is discussed in Chapter 9 of Science and the Garden: The Scientific Basis of Horticultural Practice.
Even more incidently: as per the article above, one of the plants that is most sensitive to light is soy beans. Indeed, if there is any street lighting in the vicinity, they apparently consider it to be daylight and often never flower. So, if you live in urban Melbourne, it seems unlikely that you can ever grow soy beans.
To which Heather responded (in April 2017):
For the past few years I have been growing soybeans, latterly of the Edamame kind, and getting a decent crop. Whilst the garden doesn’t receive bright street lighting, it does, until late evening, normally receive some light filtering in from the two townhouses next door.
Some guidelines for storing summer produce (from Duang Tengtrirat, January 4 2017)
Here are a few tips on how to store your summer fruits and vegetables so that they last longer and taste their best. Keep your veggies cool. The fridge is your friend – know how to store your produce.
Rule #1: Keep fruit and veggies separated. Most fruits and berries emit ethylene gas which can cause your vegetables to spoil and change flavour. Keep them in separate drawers if refrigerated.
Rule #2: Bag them first. Loosely bag or wrap greens, broccoli, capsicum, cucumber etc before placing them in the fridge. Keep sweetcorn in its husks until ready to use.
Rule #3: Do not store root vegetables with their greens. The greens will take moisture out of the roots so cut them off first and store them separately.
Rule #4: Remove rubber bands, twisties or any other things that choke your veggies. Store them without any tightening objects for better circulation.
Rule #5: As a rule it is best NOT to wash veggies before storing because extra water creates dampness which is not ideal. (However, washing lettuce, spinach and salad greens makes it easy to use them. So, wash them and make sure to dry them before storing. This will make it easy to make salads and you will eat more of them.)
Where to find finely ground rock dust (from Stuart Rodda, September 14 2016)
An ‘organic’ source of many minerals, including potassium, is finely ground rock dust, particularly basalt rock. There are various suppliers of rock dust-based soil additives, such as Munash, but most of them have other additives to enhance the overall effect and are thus quite expensive (upwards of $2/Kg). If one just wants basalt rock dust, it can be bought at some local garden suppliers, but it is often quite coarse and would take a long time (decades) for the larger grit to break down in the soil and release its nutrients. Thus it is quite important that it is finely ground. I have one source of quite fine basalt rock dust and, while it is dearer (per cubic metre) than a lot of other garden soil additives, it is much cheaper than specially manufactured and packaged ‘rock dusts’. It is from Mercuri Garden and Building Supplies at 2, The Concord, Bundoora, and costs about $105 per cubic metre. This equates to around 10 cents per litre and, because it is quite dense (heavy), this is less than 5 cents per Kg, or thus a tiny fraction of the cost of packaged rock dusts. I am not sure what they would charge for small quantities but, for people like me with larger gardens who buy loose materials by the trailerload, it is a bargain.
Get grass clippings from your neighbours (from Mala Plymin, July 27 2016)
I recently agreed with one of the handymen who was mowing my neighbour’s lawn that he would give me the grass clippings for my compost. He used to take the clippings to landfill so he is now saving time and I am getting to make great compost with the extra grass clippings. Also, one less thing going to landfill.
Plant your seeds in egg shells (from Mala Plymin, July 27 2016)
I now plant my seeds in egg shells, so I no longer have to get small plastic pots. When ready, the seedlings in their egg shells can be planted straight in the garden. The shells biodegrade and provide the soil with calcium. When I crack the eggs, I make sure I do it close to the top.
Eat your pumpkin leaves! (from Karen Olsen, March 9 2016)
When I look at my veggie patch at the moment all I can see is zucchini and pumpkin plants. I often make stuffed zucchini or pumpkin flowers (ricotta and basil: stuff, dress with olive oil, salt & pepper, then bake in the oven until a touch golden). But sometimes there are not so many flowers. So I tried the same thing with young pumpkin leaves (the whole of the plant is supposed to be edible): they were great! And, of course, it made room for some other veggie patch occupants.
Rockmelons: smell their bottoms or watch them change colour? (from Guy, February 24 2016)
Sometimes growing vegetables seems easy. Last year, we grew cucumbers. We got millions of them (well, say 50). And they grew quickly, each fruit only taking around a week to go from first appearance to full size and ready for harvesting. And (importantly), my wife had a recipe for pickling them, with results that we both thought were yummy.
Sometimes, however, things seem more difficult (and, therefore, actually more interesting!). This year, our chosen cucurbit was rockmelons. Initial developments were promising: we successfully pre-germinated the seeds, then put them into seed trays, then transplanted them to the veggie patch. But the day after transplanting them, we woke to find that all bar one had been eaten by snails. How to protect the last one? Our solution (thanks, Google) was to put copper tape (thanks, Bulleen Art & Garden) around the remaining seedling. Apparently, snails get a slight electric shock if they touch copper, so they won’t cross it.
After a few weeks of prolific growth, the flowers started appearing and we began our daily task of hand-pollination (cucurbits have separate male and female flowers). Around 10 melons appeared within the next few weeks and grew to a reasonable (i.e. eatable) size. But they didn’t look ripe and, indeed, they didn’t pass my wife’s daily smell test (smell them at the stem end to see if they have developed a sweet aroma – she calls it “smelling their bottoms”). A fortnight later, my impatience got the better of me and I picked one but it was completely unripe. Perhaps our variety never becomes sweet, I thought. Just wait some more, said my wife.
So, we waited and waited, with ritualised smelling of bottoms each day. Then suddenly (i.e. overnight) one of them completely changed colour, from green to yellow (see first picture), with a noticeably sweet aroma. We picked it and, sure enough, it was as juicy and sweet as we could possibly have hoped for.
The moral is the obvious one: patience is a virtue (or, maybe, the wife is always right!).
Protecting seedlings from both slaters and snails (from Susan Palmer, December 9 2015)
Susan Palmer writes in to say she may have found a solution for her quest to limit the damage caused by slaters and snails without killing them. Last year, slaters started chopping down her young veggie seedlings at night, progressively devouring them over the next few days. Really irritating! Following a tip from the ABC website, she now puts plant collars (old pots with the bottom chopped out) on all her seedlings. She also puts copper tape (can be purchased from Bunnings) around the pot to deter snails. Once the seedling is well established, the collar can be removed as the tougher stems are less attractive to slaters. Since then, there has been no slater or snail damage.
Editor’s note: did you know that slaters are effectively land crabs? Or, that their ‘proper’ common name is woodlice? Or, that they are apparently called ‘butcher boys’ in Williamstown?
To which Evan Gellert responded (in October 2016):
The photo is of a large snail that wasn’t bothered by the copper film tape I fixed to my raised veggie beds around 2 years ago. The copper tape is still in good condition (it can be seen just below the upper plank of the raised bed, with a couple of nails through it). Although it is discoloured and oxidised, the tape still has physical integrity. The snail trail from below makes it pretty clear that the snail passed over the tape, and didn’t simply do a U-turn from inside the veggie bed.
Growing strawberries in a small space (from Elodie, December 2 2015)
Elodie says she may have found a solution for her quest to grow enough strawberries to be self sufficient without planting out half the garden. She makes strawberry towers (see the picture). Each tower holds around 35 strawberry plants. The large bottom pot is on wheels for obvious reasons but it also makes it hard for the crawling critters to get in, as does the copper tape (it acts as an electric shock barrier). There is a good layer of scoria for drainage in the bottom, with geo fabric in between the soil layer. The middle pot has its bottom cut out, so is really just a retaining wall for the next level. Coir mulch is used to hold back the soil in the pipe holes. A few sticks in the top can support a bird net draped over the whole lot.
Keeping your worms cool (from Fay Loveland, October 7 2015)
This week in the garden I’ve been trying to keep the worm farm cool. As I write this, the worms in my worm farm are enjoying slices of chilled watermelon! To keep the worm farm cool, it is positioned in a shady spot under a large tree. During the past few days, I’ve added a couple of plastic bottles of frozen water (think of a cold version of a hot water bottle). The worms ‘snuggle’ up to the chilly bottles. At night, I open the worm farm lid for a while and rinse the farm with fresh cool water. I have also sprinkled the worm farm with a little lime to keep the pH higher and to reduce odour. Finally, I’ve soaked many layers of old newspaper and laid that over the top of the worms. It might sound like a bit of work, but it’s worth it to keep the worms working, and nobody likes finding stewed worms after a few, hot, neglectful days.
To which Jane Trikojus responded:
Another simple way to get worms through heat waves is to remove the bottom liquid-collecting tray and place the worm farm on the soil. The worms will travel down into the much cooler dirt when necessary and up again to feed. Should be in the shade for summer.
Using food leftovers/scraps and reducing food waste
(from Duang Tengtrirat, December 7 2016)
Some of us enjoy leftovers, others don’t mind them and yet others would do anything to avoid looking at yesterday’s foods. No matter how hard we try there are always leftovers. Worse yet – no matter how organised we are, there are still leftovers and we feel compelled to use them rather than throwing them out. Here are some tips:
1. As soon as you put food into a container to store in the fridge, stick a note ‘EAT ME FIRST’ to it. Then use this first either as a re-heat or a re-purpose.
2. When preparing to put leftovers away, make it easy to use them again. For example, remove cooked chicken from the bone so it’s ready to use.
3. When ready to use leftovers, think of its ‘re-purpose’ use. How can you breathe new life into something from yesterday or the day before?
4. Look around to see what you have in your pantry that can work as ‘supporting casts.’ For example, in your pantry: rice, pasta, wrap; or, in the fridge: cheese, sauces dressings.
(from Carol Woolcock on how to use lemon rinds, December 4 2014)
1. Finely grate the rinds and store in a container in the freezer. Useful when only a teaspoon or so of grated rind is required and you don’t want to grate a fresh lemon (or you don’t have any).
2. Allow the lemon halves to thoroughly dry (in the sun or when you have turned the oven off after cooking). These make great fire lighters (and scent the room as well). I also save any lint from the clothes dryer and stuff the halves with this).
3. Remove the white pith and cut the rind into narrowish strips. Blanche in boiling water for a couple of minutes then drain and place in a sugar syrup over a low heat until semi-transparent. Remove from the syrup and drain on baking paper until dry (may take a couple of days). Can then be used in fruit cakes etc or dipped in melted chocolate for a treat with coffee. A couple of teaspoons of the lemony syrup can also be added to a glass of water (soda, mineral or tap) for a refreshing drink.
4. Dip the halves in a saucer of bicarb soda and use to clean soap scum from the shower door. Depending on how much scum is present, you will need to re-dip the skin. Rinse off with plain water for sparking glass. Farewell to easy off BAM!
Making vegetable stock from kitchen scraps: I keep almost all part of veggies that I don’t use in a freezer bag and throw it in the freezer to make stock. There are three key ingredients in stock: onion, celery and carrots. The rest you can be creative about and add anything you like.
Veggie scraps that I keep include: onion skins (brown onions only as red onions skins are bitter), garlic peels, coriander roots, green onion roots and green tips, celery tops, mushroom stems, spinach roots and silverbeet stems.
When I have enough in the freezer (2 and more cups), I de-frost them and add water, boil until soft, strain and throw away the solids, keep the broth in the fridge for 2-3 days or freeze the stock for later use. Note: The difference between broth and stock is that broth is spiced and stock is not. I prefer to make stock (no salt and no pepper) so that it is more versatile and add spices like ginger if I am making Asian food, oregano, thyme and sage if making risotto, for example.
Tip: I don’t use brassicas (broccoli, cabbage, brussel sprouts) in making stock because (1) they add a bitter taste and (2) they are too strong and overpower the aroma of the stock.
(from the Little Organic Shop Hurstbridge, November 20 2014)
All our food scraps and veggie/fruit peels etc. go back to the chicken farm that we get our eggs from. Any waste that chooks don’t like or shouldn’t eat (onions, citrus, potato peel, etc.) goes into compost. Leftover milk from the coffee machine is either made into kefir and used in pancakes, scones and other recipes that call for buttermilk or sour cream, or use it to make custard or creamed rice. Vegetables that are misshapen, or that are getting close to use-by (but are still good to eat) we make into soups or sauces or find suitable recipes to use them e.g. one of our farmers recently brought in a lot of rocket that we knew wouldn’t last, so rather than waste it we turned it into a delicious rocket pesto with walnuts.
(from Sammy from Diamond Creek, November 13 2014)
Egg whites, can be frozen. As can egg yolks. In my experience, you then can’t use them in the ‘fussier’ baking recipes, but they are perfectly suitable (once thawed) for the more forgiving baking.
I am told whey can also be frozen, however I have never tried it. I give left over whey to my chooks – they think it’s heaven!
Lemons! My lemon tree is currently a non-producer. We rescued a friends potted lemon tree that was on the point of death due to neglect, no water, little soil and gall wasp like you wouldn’t believe. So, over the last 18 months, we have been giving it a lot of TLC and pinching out any blossom to help it save its energy for growing. Hence, if I see someone with extra lemons, I take them with open arms. But when you take piles of lemons, you have to do something with them.
Freeze the juice in ice cube trays – one cube is roughly half a lemon so it works out fine for measurements. Then I grate the rinds and freeze them also. Both turn out quite fresh and we have very useful lemon all year round.
You can also use scooped out lemon halves as slater traps in the veggie garden.