The table below shows the possible fruiting months for a wide variety of fruit trees, berries and vines. It also shows: the number of plants required for successful pollination (1 for self-fertile or 2+ for self-incompatible); whether the fruit will ripen after being picked (if kept at room temperature); and which parts of the tree bear the fruit (relevant for pruning).
Clearly, the schedule for a particular plant will depend on its variety. So, for example, whilst apple trees may have fruit at any time from February to September, Golden Delicious are typically ready to harvest in February, Granny Smith in April and Eve in June.
Click anywhere in the table to view a higher resolution version. Alternatively, here is a pdf version.